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What are the primary reasons why the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in the “preclinical” phase is seen as controversial?

As noted in the text, the diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease should be done by performing a thorough evaluation to rule out other potential causes of the observed symptoms. Based on nearly 30 years of research, new criteria were released in 2011 jointly by the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association.

These new criteria created considerable controversy. Research indicated that Alzheimer’s disease progresses through a series of stages, from a “preclinical” phase in which no symptoms can be easily detected, through mild cognitive impairment, to clinical Alzheimer’s disease (Albert et al., 2011; Jack et al., 2011; McKhann et al., 2011; Sperling et al., 2011). In addition, the criteria included a call for biomarkers to be linked with the various categories, as well as new standards for brain autopsy. The main controversy concerned whether people should be diagnosed with a “preclinical” form of Alzheimer’s disease, especially when there is no treatment and many people never go on to develop clinical Alzheimer’s disease (Brickman, 2011).

Research has shown that abnormal levels of beta-amyloid protein are associated with mild cognitive impairment (Rodrigue, Kennedy, & Park, 2009), but again, whether everyone with high levels of amyloid should have a diagnosis is controversial (Brickman, 2011). However, the recent research linking tau protein transmission across neurons offers hope that a drug or other effective therapy could be invented to prevent such transmission (Liu et al., 2012).

Despite the controversies, the new criteria make clear that the link between research and clinical application needs to be a strong one. Clear evidence of specific behaviors or health markers needs to be present. You should ensure that this is the case for anyone in your family or in your work.

1. What are the primary reasons why the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in the “preclinical” phase is seen as controversial?

2. If you were an older adult and were suffering from a condition for which there was no cure and very few treatment options, would you want to know about the disease or would you want your doctor and family to keep this information from you? Explain your choice.

3. What biological markers have been found that might indicate the presence of Alzheimer’s disease in a human being?

4. Exactly what does it mean to say that a person is in the “preclinical phase” of Alzheimer’s disease? What implications does this have for the progression of the illness?

Is individual communication more important than group or mass communication?

Can you imagine an effective leader who is not an effective communicator? Leadership communication skills are very important. Some would call effective communication the most important leadership competency. Without the skills of effective communication, you will not be an effective leader, especially in this complex, fast-paced environment.  It is important for the leader to create an environment of open communication where ideas, solutions, and problems can all be discussed without fear. When employees understand that communication is open and encouraged, they will perform better.  Using the assigned readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research communication competencies required for leaders.  Then, respond to the following: •What are some key communication competencies needed in leaders today? •Is individual communication more important than group or mass communication? Why or why not? •List 2–4 strategies that leaders can use to improve their individual communication skills. Which method is most important? Why?

How does the number of groups being compared affect the statistical analysis?

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated. ANOVA In this discussion, you will evaluate a research question and determine how that question might best be analyzed.  To do this, you will need to identify the appropriate application of course specified statistical tests, examine assumptions and limitations of course specified statistical tests, and communicate in writing critiques of statistical tests. A researcher wishes to study the effect of a new drug on blood pressure.  Consider and discuss the following questions as you respond: Would you recommend using a z-test, a t-test, or an ANOVA for the analysis?  Explain your answer. What would your choice of test depend on?  For the test you select, explain your design and your comparison groups.  Would the hypothesis be directional or non-directional?  Would the test be one-tailed or two-tailed?  What would be the null and what would be the alternative hypothesis? Guided Response: Review your classmates’ posts.  Respond to at least three of your classmates. Do you agree or disagree with the test selected by your peer?  How does the number of groups being compared affect the statistical analysis? What suggestions would you make for change or improvement?  Why would these suggestions potentially be more useful? Stuck on a problem? Don’t skip that assignment – click the button to chat with a live tutor. It is free and here to help you now. Go to top of page

Discuss how individual differences related to race, sexual orientation, gender, and age would affect your work as a sport psychology consultant.

Differences in Cultural Identities

For this discussion:

  • Discuss how individual differences related to race, sexual orientation, gender, and age would affect your work as a sport psychology consultant.
  • Address how these differences might affect your ability to establish a relationship with the athlete. Consider not only your biases and experiences that would influence your approach with others, but also consider how others will be influenced by their biases related to your cultural identities.
  • Discuss how you will navigate any barriers or difficulties in establishing relationships based on these factors.

Do women or men have a longer life expectancy?

PSY 203 Departmental Exam Study Guide

1. What is human development? Briefly discuss environment contexts for development.

Differentiate between nature and nurture with regard to development.

What is the difference between a cross-sectional and a longitudinal research design?

Briefly describe the information processing view of human development with regard to gains in processing capacity.

Explain the importance of social interaction according to Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory.

Outline the phases of prenatal development, noting the major milestones that occur in each phase.

What is Down Syndrome? How does a mother’s age affect the risk of bearing a baby with Down Syndrome?

What is a teratogen? In which stage of prenatal development is the unborn child most vulnerable to teratogens?

Differentiate between the cephalocaudal trend and the proximodistal trend in terms of physical growth and motor control.

List and describe the three basic infant temperaments as described by Thomas and Chess.

Describe the findings of Harry Harlow’s research with baby monkeys.

What is attachment? List and describe patterns of infant attachment studied by Mary Ainsworth.

How does a father’s involvement with a baby affect the child’s development?

Outline and describe the eight psychosocial stages of development proposed by Erik Erikson, indicating the ages of each stage.

Outline and describe the four stages of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, indicating the ages of each stage.

What is the difference between assimilation and accommodation?

Differentiate between the nativist, behaviorist, and interactionist perspectives of language development. What evidence supports each theory?

Outline and explain the three levels of moral development proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg.

Discuss physical changes associated with puberty in both boys and girls.

Which area of the brain is the last to mature in humans?

Discuss sex differences in aggressiveness and verbal and math abilities.

Which age group has the highest ratio of attempted to completed suicides?

Outline the four identity statuses proposed by James Marcia. What are the main two dimensions considered with the four statuses?

Do the Big Five personality traits tend to change or remain relatively stable through middle adulthood?

How common is a midlife crisis? What is a midlife transition?

Describe changes in gender identity in midlife.

What is the empty nest period? How do most parents react to it?

At what age does menopause typically occur?

List and describe the three components of personality proposed by Sigmund Freud.

Contrast Erikson’s theory of development with Freud’s theory of development.

Why do students drop out of college?

What is active lifespan?

Describe trends in housing arrangements for older adults. Why do many elders live in their own homes?

Discuss factors associated with elder maltreatment.

Discuss indirect self-destructive acts that are common with suicide in old age.

List factors in late adulthood that increase the likelihood of falling.

What is osteoporosis?

What is a kinkeeper? Who usually assumes this role in the family?

Differentiate between problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping with regard to stress management.

Describe fluid and crystallized intelligence, and discuss changes in these types of intelligence as people move through adulthood.

Do women or men have a longer life expectancy?

How might we reconcile the world as it is with the existence of a benevolent Creator?

For Section 1, please write a well-developed, thoughtful paragraph or two in response to one of the following two questions.  Write your entry in the textbox below, or browse your computer to attach a Word document.

1.  A new worldview label has popped up in philosophy, theology and psychology.  It’s called Moralistic Therapeutic Deism,and it refers to people who claim to be part of a religion but who are really just using the IDEA of God as a moral system and a therapeutic system of self help.  They may go to worship, or pray when they’re in trouble, and follow the moral rules, but they really have no RELATIONSHIP with God and often no use for God unless life hands them a crisis.  They treat God as an idea, instead of as a Person.  Look at your culture and react to this idea.

2.  Dr. Rachels presumes that if a perfect God made this world, then the world should be better than it is–that we would not find so much ugliness, hatred, discord, and selfishness as we do.  The opposite has also been proposed–that if the world was a cosmic accident, then we would not find as much beauty, love, unity, and compassion as we do.  How might we reconcile the world as it is with the existence of a benevolent Creator?

Analyze the major trends in psychology

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Literature Review

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read the Ryder, Ban, & Chentsova-Dutton (2011) “Towards a Cultural-Clinical Psychology,” American Psychological Association (2014) “Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology,” Hage, et al. (2007) “Walking the Talk: Implementing the Prevention Guidelines and Transforming the Profession of Psychology,” and Rivera-Mosquera, et al. (2007) “Prevention Activities in Professional Psychology: A Reaction to the Prevention Guidelines” articles.

Clinical and counseling psychology is a dynamic field that is constantly evolving and striving toward better treatment options and modalities. In this literature review, you will explore and integrate psychological research into a literature review, addressing current trends in three major areas of clinical and counseling psychology: assessment, clinical work, and prevention.

In your review, include the following headings, and address the required content.

Assessment
Support this section with information from the Ryder et al. (2011) article “Towards a Cultural-Clinical Psychology” and at least one additional peer-reviewed article from the Ashford University Library.

  • Compare the assessments currently in use by clinical      and counseling psychologists.
  • Explain the trend towards cultural-clinical      psychology and the suitability of clinical assessments with diverse      clients.

Clinical work
Support this section using a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles from the Ashford University Library. The recommended articles for this week may be useful in generating your response.

  • Compare and contrast technical eclecticism,      assimilative integration and theoretical integration.
  • Provide a historical context and identify the major      theorists for each perspective.
  • Assess the trends in psychotherapy integration.
  • List three pros and cons for each perspective,      sharing which perspective most closely aligns with your own.
  • Analyze the major trends in psychology and explain      the connection between evidenced-based practices and psychotherapy      integration.

Prevention
Review the “Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology” (American Psychological Association, 2014), and support this section with information from the Hage, et al. (2007) “Walking the Talk: Implementing the Prevention Guidelines and Transforming the Profession of Psychology,” and Rivera-Mosquera, et al. (2007) “Prevention Activities in Professional Psychology: A Reaction to the Prevention Guidelines” articles.

  • Describe general prevention strategies implemented      by clinical and counseling psychologists at the micro, meso, exo,      and macro levels.

The Literature Review

  • Must be 7 to 10 double-spaced pages in length (not      including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style      as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external      site.)Links to an external site..
  • Must include a separate title page with the      following:
  • Title of paper
  • Student’s name
  • Course name and number
  • Instructor’s name
  • Date submitted
  • Must use at least seven peer-reviewed sources in      addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined      in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is      formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing      Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

How will you prioritize your goals?

Informational Interview  For this assignment, you conducted an interview with a sport psychology professional during the course. Write 6–8 pages of reflection and analysis.  Preparation  Complete the following to prepare for the interview: 1.Select a topic: Select a current sport psychology or performance topic that a consultant or psychologist would address in their applied professional work. Find resources that support your reason for selecting this particular topic; you will need to build a rationale for why this topic is currently relevant to the field. 2.Schedule an interview: Identify and contact a practicing professional in your chosen profession with whom you could discuss the state of the field and your selected issue. You must conduct your interview in real time, preferably in person; if that is not possible, you may conduct your interview virtually using a phone or videoconferencing. 3.Prepare questions: Formulate a series of specific questions to ask during the interview. Consider relevant sport psychology principles that inform the areas you will discuss. Create questions around the following topics: ◦State of the field: Take some time to learn about how the professional views the field of sport psychology, how it has changed over time, and what advice the professional has for someone just getting started. ◦Challenges: Discuss current challenges or struggles for professionals practicing in the field of sport psychology. ◦Trends: Explore areas of interest the professional considers important advances and emerging trends in the field of sport psychology. ◦Technology: Explore how, if at all, the professional uses technology in their practice. Examples include social media, teleconferencing, texting, e-mail, apps, and other technology for interventions. What are some of the ethical considerations related to use of technology? ◦Diversity: Discuss how the professional considers different cultural identities (age, gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation) when working with teams, coaches, and athletes. Learn how the professional develops and maintains multicultural competence. ◦Career development: Learn what advice the professional would give to a person just starting out in a career in sport psychology.  ◦Current topic: Spend some time discussing your selected topic. Discuss the professional’s approach with teams, coaches, or athletes related to the topic you selected. Address the following: ◦Explore how the understanding of and interventions related to the topic has changed over time. ◦Explore ethical considerations that might be related to this issue.    Directions  Conduct a real-time interview with a practicing professional in your chosen profession. Note: Ask permission to take notes during the interview. You will use your notes to analyze what you have learned. However, you will not submit these notes.  Prepare a 6–8 page reflection and analysis based on your interview. In your analysis, discuss the state of the field of sport psychology, how your selected professional approaches the current issue identified, and conclude with a discussion of lessons learned. Write your paper as follows: •Provide an overview analysis of the state of the field of sport psychology in which you compare and contrast the practicing professional’s perspective of the field against current literature. •Analyze the current issue that formed the basis of your interview, incorporating the point of view of the professional you interviewed. ◦Build a detailed rationale to support why you think the topic is timely and important to the field. ◦Present the applications and interventions discussed in scholarly literature related to the topic, and evaluate the approach your practicing sport psychology professional uses to address the topic in their own practice. ◦Analyze how the understanding and interventions have changed over time. ◦Assess current ethical concerns relative to the topic. ◦Identify considerations to take into account when working with diverse populations. ◦Support your discussion and rationale with scholarly resources.  •Establish prioritized developmental goals in sports psychology. ◦Based on what you learned by analyzing the informational interview, reviewing the literature, and understanding your own interests and needs, create a list of developmental goals to stay current or refine your own approach to sport psychology over the course of your career. ◦How will you prioritize your goals? Justify your reasoning for the prioritization.   Additional Requirements •Length: Submit a minimum of 6–8 typed, double-spaced pages. •References: Include at least three citations. As this is a current-issues course, the citations should be as recent as possible, preferably within the last two years. If you use citations older than this, provide a solid rationale for their inclusion. •Font: Use Arial, 12 point.

What might be some advantages or disadvantages to legislation guiding the practice of assessment? 

After you have completed the assigned Readings and Web Reading . Your primary post should be no less than 350 words in length and should address both sections A and B. Your primary post must be specific, concise, and substantive.

Topic 1: Intellectual Assessment

Provide discussion related to one specific strength and one specific weakness of the process of intellectual assessment. Be sure to provide detailed information to back up your discussion based upon the readings in this unit.

2. Discuss the relevance of legislation on the processes of achievement and aptitude assessment. Be sure to include details that are typically related to the readings and the Web link from this unit. What might be some advantages or disadvantages to legislation guiding the practice of assessment?

 

Web Reading and link

Please access the following website:

Source: Clinical Assessment: Pearson Education, Inc.

Retrieved from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/